«Digitālais eiro» sāk ceļu pie eiropiešiem, varētu «ieviesties» 2026. gadā

Digitālais eiro esot paredzēts, lai papildinātu nevis aizstātu skaidru naudu. Attēls no: ledgerinsights.com

Eiropas Centrālā banka (ECB) ir devusi zaļo gaismu daudzgadīgam projektam, kura mērķis – radīt eiro digitālo versiju, ziņo “Reuters”.   

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Elektroniskais banknošu un monētu ekvivalents, digitālais eiro, visticamāk, būs digitālais maks, ko eirozonas pilsoņi varēs glabāt ECB.

Tā ir daļa no centrālo banku centieniem apmierināt pieaugošo pieprasījumu pēc elektroniskajiem maksāšanas līdzekļiem un novērst privātajā sektorā radīto digitālo valūtu ekspensiju – no bitcoin līdz “Facebook” izziņotajam digitālās valūtas projektam Diem.

Kas šobrīd zināms par digitālo eiro?

Tas būs maksāšanas līdzeklis, ko nodrošinās ECB – līdzīgi, kā pašlaik banknotes un monētas, bet digitālā formātā. Digitālais eiro, iespējams, atgādinās tiešsaistes bankas kontu vai digitālo maku, kas atrodasadīsies nevis komerciestādē, bet tieši ECB. Tas šo digitālo valūtu padarīs drošāku nekā visas pārējās.

Tomēr, visticamāk, ka eirozonas valstu pilsoņiem nebūs iespējas visus savus ietaupījumus pārvērst digitālajos eiro. Iemesls ir Eiropas Savienības svētā govs konkurence: ECB digitālā maka drošība varētu padarīt to tik pievilcīgu, ka tas ātri izkonkurētu komercbanku piedāvājumus. Tātad vai nu tiks noteiks, cik daudz digitālo eiro vienai personai var piederēt – piemēram, 3000 EUR –, vai arī tiks piemēroti sodi mājsaimniecībām, kas pārsniegs noteiktu maksimālo summu.

Digitālais eiro tiek ieviests galvenokārt tāpēc, ka ECB nevēlas atstāt digitālos maksājumus tikai privātajam sektoram, it īpaši apstākļos, kad skaidrās naudas izmantošana sāk samazināties, kā tas ir, piemēram, Zviedrijā.

Turklāt ECB ir nobažījusies, ka eirozonā lielākie maksājumu pakalpojumu sniedzēji – piemēram, “Visa” un “Mastercard” – nāk no valstīm, kas atrodas ārpus ES, un tiem ir iespēja iegūt un izmantot ES valstu personu datus.

Patērētājiem ir būtiski zināt, ka digitālos eiro bezsaistē, kā skaidru naudu varēs izmantot tikai nelieliem maksājumiem – visdrīzāk, līdz 100 eiro, izmantojot ierīces, kas savienotas ar “Blootooth” vai citu tuvas distances sakaru palīdzību. ECB ir paziņojusi, ka tai “jāsabalansē privātums ar cīņu pret naudas atmazgāšanu un izvairīšanos no nodokļu maksāšanas”.

Divu gadu laikā ECB cer apstiprināt digitālā eiro dizainu un iesniegt izskatīšanai Eiropas Padomē. Vēl trīs gadi būs nepieciešami emisijas sagatavošanai. Tas nozīmē, ka digitālais eiro reāli varētu parādīties 2026. gada otrajā pusē.

ECB uzsver, ka digitālais eiro papildinās nevis aizstās skaidru naudu. Atbilstoši ECB veiktas aptaujas datiem 2019. gadā eirozonas tirdzniecības vietās ar skaidro naudu tika izdarīti 73% no visiem maksājumiem.

Tomēr kritiķi bažījas, ka digitālā valūta dod iespēju ECB kādu dienu atcelt skaidru naudu un digitālo eiro izmantot agresīvu monetārās politikas pasākumu īstenošanai – piemēram, nosakot negatīvas procentu likmes mājsaimniecību noguldījumiem vai tiešiem skaidras naudas pārskaitījumiem.

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